Hotel:A hotel or an inn is defined by the British Law as a ‘place where a bonafide traveler can receive food and shelter, provided he is in a position to pay for it and is in a fit condition to be received’.The core areas of hotel includes
- Room Division
- Front office
- House keeping
- Food and Beverage Department
- F& B Service
- Human Resource Department
- Sales and Marketing Department
- Purchase Department
- Financial Control Department
- Security Department
CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELS
Need for classification
- Lends uniformity in services and sets general standards of a hotel.
- Provides an idea regarding the range and type of hotels available within a geographical location.
- Acts as a measure of control over hotels with respect to the quality of services offered in each category.
I. Standard Classification (Star rating System)
In India Star Rating of hotels is given by a central government committee (HRACC). The members of HRACC comprises of:
- Officials from Central and State Tourism ministry
- Members of FHRAI
- Menbers of HAI
- Members of IATO
- Members of TAAI
- Principle of IHM
- Members of IHHA
HRACC categorizes hotels into:Star Rated Hotels (One Star to Five Star Deluxe) & Heritage Hotels
- One Star Hotel
- These properties are generally small and independently owned, with a family atmosphere.
- There may be a limited range of facilities and the meals may be fairly simple. For example, lunch may not be served in room
- Some bedrooms may not have an en suite bath or shower.
- Maintenance, cleanliness, and comfort would be of an acceptable standard.
- Two Star Hotel
- Hotels will typically be small to medium-sized, and offer more extensive facilities than one-star hotels.
- Guests can expect comfortable, well-equipped overnight accommodation, usually with an en suite bath or shower.
- Reception and other staff will aim for a more professional presentation than at the one-star hotel
- Hotel will offer a wider range of straightforward services, including food and beverages.
- Three Star Hotel
- Hotels are usually of fairly large size to support higher staffing levels as well as a significantly higher quality and range of facilities than at the lower star classifications.
- Reception and other public areas will be more spacious, and the restaurant will normally also cater to non-residents.
- All bedrooms will have an en suite bath and shower, and will offer a good standard of comfort and equipment, such as a direct-dial telephone and toiletries in the bathroom.
- Besides room service, some provisions for business travelers can be expected.
- Four Star Hotel
- Degree of luxury as well as quality in the furnishings, décor, and equipment in every area of the hotel is out standing
- Bedrooms will also usually offer more space than at the lower star levels.
- They will be well-designed with coordinated furnishings and décor.
- The en suite bathrooms will have both a bath and shower.
- There will be a high staff to guest ratio,
- There will be provisions of porter service, twenty-four-hour room service, and laundry and dry-cleaning services.
- The restaurant will demonstrate a serious approach to its cuisine.
- Five Star Hotel & Five Star Deluxe Hotel
- Five star hotels offer spacious and luxurious accommodations throughout the hotel, matching the best international standards.
- The interior design should impress with its quality and attention to detail, comfort, and elegance.
- The furnishings should be clean and tidy.
- The service should be formal, well supervised, and flawless in its attention to guests’ needs, without being intrusive.
- The restaurant will demonstrate a high level of technical skill.
- The staff will be knowledgeable, helpful, and well versed in all aspects of customer care, combining efficiency with courtesy.
Heritage hotels are properties set in small forts, palaces, or havelis, the mansions of one-time royal and aristocratic families. In a heritage hotel, a visitor is offered rooms that have their own history, is served traditional cuisine, is entertained by folk artistes, can participate in activities that allow a glimpse into the heritage of the region etc.They have added a new dimension to cultural tourism.
They are of following three types:
Heritage: This category covers hotels in residences, havelis, hunting lodges, castles, or forts and palaces built between 1935 and 1950.
Heritage Classic: This category covers hotels in residences, havelis, hunting lodges, castles, or forts and palaces built prior to 1935 but after 1920.
Heritage Grand: This category covers hotels in residences, havelis, hunting lodges, castles, or forts and palaces built prior to 1920.
II. Classification of the hotels on the basis of Size
The number of guest rooms in a hotel is a criterion to classify hotels. Hotels can be grouped into the following categories on the basis of the number of rooms:
- Small Hotel: In India, hotels with twenty five rooms or less are classified as small hotels, e.g., Hotel Alka, New Delhi and The OberoiVanyavilas, Ranthambore. However, in the developed countries of Europe and America, hotels with less than 100 rooms are considered small. These hotels provide clean and comfortable accommodation but may not provide upmarket facilities, such as swimming pool, restaurant, bar, etc.
- Medium Hotel: Hotels with twenty-six to hundred rooms are called medium hotels, e.g., Hotel Taj View, Agra and Chola Sheraton Hotel, Chennai. However, in developed nations, hotels with up to 300 rooms are termed medium-sized.
- Large Hotel: In India, hotels with 101 to 300 guest rooms are regarded as large hotels, e.g., The Imperial, New Delhi and The Park, Kolkata. Whereas, hotels with 400–600 rooms are termed as large hotels in the developed world.
- Very Large Hotel: Hotels with more than 300 guest rooms are known as very large hotels in our country, e.g., Shangri-La Hotel, New Delhi and LeelaKempinski, Mumbai. In developed nations, hotels with 600–1,000 rooms may be considered very large
III. Classification of hotel on the basis of Location
The location of the hotel is one of the major criteria for a traveler to select and patronize a hotel. Hotels may be located in the city centre, sub-urban areas, natural locations such as hill stations and sea beaches, near the port of entry into a country, etc. They may be classified into the following categories on the basis of their location:
- Down Town Hotel:A downtown hotel is located in the centre of the city or within a short distance from the business centre, shopping area, theatres, public offices etc. The room rate may be higher than similar hotels in other areas. They are generally preferred by business clientele.
- Sub-urban Hotel : Hotels that are located away from the hurry up and bustle of city is known as sun-urban hotel/ The duration of guest stay may be longer than the down town hotels. This hotels offer a moderate room rate as it is situated away from the city.
- Airport Hotel:Hotels that are located in the close vicinity of air ports with all the facilities of a commercial hotel is known as airport hotels. Stopover passengers and cabin crews are the clienteles of such hotels.
- Resort:Hotels that are located at tourist destinations such as hill stations, sea beaches and countryside with a calm and natural ambience are referred to as resort hotels. The room rate may range from moderate to high, depending on the additional services offered. These hotels combine accommodation with leisure activities suchas golf, summer and winter sports etc.
- Motel:Hotel that is located along the highways and provides modest lodgings to highway travelers is known as motels. A motel offers facilities such as accommodations, food and drinks, garage facility, a parking lot and refueling for vehicles.
- Floatels: Floatels or floating hotels are types of lodging properties that float on the surface of water. Some of the Floatels offers luxuries accommodation with food and beverage facilities to guest.
IV. Classification of hotel on the basis of Clientele
Hotels cater to the needs of their guests. Every individual or a group of people who patronize a hotel has a different set of requirements. On the basis of clientele the hotels may be categorized as:
- Commercial / Business Hotel: Hotels that caters the needs of a business traveler is known as business hotel. These hotels provide high standard rooms and amenities along with high speed internet, business centers and conference halls. They also provide in house secretarial services and all the facilities need for a business person. This is also known as down town hotel.
- Transient Hotel: Transient hotelcaters to the needs of people who are on the move and need a stopover en route their journey. Located in the close proximity of airports and sea ports, these hotels are normally patronized by transient travelers. They have 24 hour room service, and coffee shop and offer all facilities of a commercial hotel.
- Suite Hotel: Hotels which provide the highest level of personalized service to the guest is known as suite hotel. They are the luxurious hotel having all suit rooms generally comprise a living are, a compact kitchenette and one or two bed room attached with bathroom. The facilities are highly customized and are patronized by wealthy people and tourist who are fond of luxury.
- Residential Hotel: Residential hotels provide accommodation for a longer duration. These hotels are generally patronized by people who are on a temporary official deputation to a city where they do not have their own residential accommodation. Duration of stay may vary from one month to two years with a modest service. Rooms are similar to the rooms in suit hotels.
- Casino: Casino hotels provide gambling facilities. They have state of the art gambling facilities, along with speciality restaurants, bars, 24 hour room service, well appointed and furnished rooms for its guests.
- Bed & Breakfast Hotel: A European concept, bed and breakfast (B&B) hotels are lodging establishments, generally operated in large family residences. Family which offers accommodation in their house and the owner usually lives on the premises and is responsible for serving breakfast to the guest.
- Convention Hotel: Hotel that caters to the needs of a convention delegation. The hotel may have more rooms to accommodate the large number of delegates. They are equipped with the state of the art convention centre with all the facilities for convention delegates.
- Conference Center:A conference centre is a hotel which caters to the needs of a conference delegation. These hotels provide rooms to delegates of conferences; a conference hall with the desired seating arrangement for meeting; food & beverage requirement during and after conference; and all other requirement for conducting a conference.
V. Classification on the basis of Duration of Guest Stay
Hotels can be grouped into following categories on the basis of duration of guest stay:
- Commercial Hotel: The duration of guest stay in these hotels is short, ranging from a few days to a week
- Transient Hotel: The duration of stay at transient hotels is very short, a day or even less generally patronized by transient travelers.
- Semi-Residential Hotel: The duration of stay may range from few weeks to some months.
- Residential /Apartment Hotel: As the name suggests, residential hotels provide accommodation for long duration. The duration of stay may range from months to few years.
- Extended stay Hotels: These hotels are for those guests who wish to stay for a long period (from few days to weeks)
VI. Classification on the basis of Level of Services
Hotels may be classified into following group on the basis of level of services provided by them:
- Up-market / Luxury / World Class Services Hotels: These are the hotels that caters the needs of the affluent people demanding luxury and are not price sensitive. These hotels have following features:
- Generally located in heart of the city or at very exotic location
- Provides personalized services of highest standard
- These hotels have many specialty restaurants with full-assisted service
- Top-end recreational facilities, such as golf course, tennis courts, designer swimming pools with trained life guards, and other sports facilities, shopping arcades, beauty salons, health spas with saunas and jacuzzi, are a regular feature.
- Mid-market / Mid-range Services Hotels: These hotels offer modest services without the frills and personalized attention of luxury hotels, and appeal to the largest segment of travelers.
- Budget / Economy Hotels: Budget hotels focus on meeting the most basic needs of guests by providing clean, comfortable, and inexpensive rooms. Also known as economy or limited services hotels, they appeal primarily to budget-minded travelers and groups.
VII. Classification on the basis of Ownership
On the basis of the ownership hotels are classified as under:
- Proprietary Ownership: Proprietary ownership is the direct ownership of one or more properties by a person or company.
- Franchise: It is the authorization given by a company to another company or individual to sell its unique products/services and use its trademark according to the guidelines given by the former, for a specified time, and at a specified place.
- Management Contract: Management contract, as the name suggests, is a contract between the owner of the property and a hotel operator (management contractor) by which the owner employs the operator as an agent to assume the full responsibility for operating and managing the hotel.
- Referral group:The independent hotels get together & form an association to overcome the disadvantage of being an independent property.The hotels help each other getting business share reservation net; marketing & advertising even purchases.
- Time-share: it entails purchasing a tourist accommodation at a popular destination for a particular time slot in a year. The buyers can then occupy the property for the appointed time or rent the unit to other vacationers if they cannot avail the facility. They have to make a one-time payment for the time slot and a yearly fee to cover the maintenance costs and related expenses, and take a share in the profit from the income generated if they are not utilizing their time slot.
- Condominium: Condominium hotels are similar to time-share hotels, except that condominium hotels have a single owner instead of multiple owners sharing the hotel.
VIII. Alternative Accommodation
Alternative accommodation can be simply defined as ‘all those types of accommodation that are available outside the formal or organized accommodation sector’. It may be of following types:
- Dak Bungalow / Circuit House / Inspection Bungalow / Forest Lodge
- Sarai / Dharamshala
- Youth Hostel
- Lodge / Boarding House
- Camping Ground / Tourist Camp
- Paying Guest Accommodation
- Railway / Airport Retiring Room